Archive for February, 2012

after such a temper of the Chinese peacekeepers in the past 20 years

Tuesday, February 28th, 2012

A place called rescue, wilderness survival … only through the examination of the 39 courses to be eligible for trainers to be sent to the turmoil in countries and regions in the world.
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However, after such a temper of the Chinese peacekeepers in the past 20 years, has been playing with the Corps of Engineers, logistics soldiers, Recently, a report of the Western media has broken the Just calm of the 29 Chinese workers tied to the event, either to the African send troops again by the outside world. In this regard, some experts have said to the News of the World

Combat troops to Africa

January 11, the eve of the Spring Festival, China’s ninth batch to Nansudanwei and the Corps of Engineers Battalion ready to go, they will be divided into three batches deployed to 南苏丹瓦乌 City, succeeding the eighth installment of of went Nansudanwei and engineers brigade. The Western media attention, in this operation, the first time that China sent to overseas armed personnel and armored vehicles.

Peacekeeping operations is to open up new areas. affect the flexibility to change policy, a move indicates that China began a major shift in the attitude of participation in overseas military operations.

However, with the growing of China’s international obligations, and Beijing I am afraid that is no longer as in the past, performance was detached and neutral, but must have a tendentious involved in international affairs.

The speculation in Western media, a spokesman for the Chinese Defense Ministry Geng Yansheng at a regular press conference in response to the afternoon of February 23, said the Chinese peacekeepers has always attached great importance to self-vigilance and security and defense in peacekeeping operations. In 2007, the Chinese peacekeeping troops stationed in the Darfur region has been allocated to Guard units. Guard unit, the main task is to bear their own vigilance and security and defense. He said, whether to send combat troops to participate in UN peacekeeping operations, will make a decision based on various aspects.

He pointed out that a variable is the probability of the risks incurred by the key projects and programs in overseas conflict areas, showing a trend in recent years, the attack on the ratio of China’s overseas engineering staff on the rise; the second variable, with the China went to the increase in overseas peacekeeping operations and in-depth, Chinese peacekeepers of its own security has become a big problem.

Sudan needs China Wu Liwei and

The beginning of 2012, 29 Chinese workers in Sudan kidnapped message to the outside world started to pay attention to the oil interests disputes between North and South Sudan, and China coerced by this dispute troubled.

So far, both the north and south Sudan still not reach an agreement on oil and transportation costs, and contradictions have intensified the momentum. Previously, South Sudan has announced the suspension of oil production, and the expulsion of a Chinese oil company executives. There are concerns that these moves may threaten China’s oil supply in southern Sudan.

Such a complex situation to the Chinese peacekeeping mission put forward a new topic: the north and south Sudan again conflict with the actual interests in the region, whether it should break the stereotypes, to send combat troops to intervene?

He further explained that the so-called regular troops, referring to the heavily armed, can be directly on the front-line combat troops, it can hold all kinds of light and heavy weapons, including helicopter gunships, armored personnel carriers, and even some light tanks. Such forces will normally be in severe conflict areas to perform the mandatory peacekeeping missions, and even the use of force both parties to the conflict to isolate.

However the Xu Tiebing believe that China to send peacekeepers to Sudan and combat troops from the present situation is not realistic. Because the situation of Sudan, sending regular combat units, the Chinese may be forced to face in the end to defend the party. interests of the color? These are the need to consider.

Chinese troops face multiple risks

Since 1990, China sent military observers to the Middle East for the first time, extensively involved in nearly 20 countries in Haiti, Liberia, East Timor peacekeeping operations. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China has become the most peacekeepers sent within the UN framework.

Such a set of data sufficient to show the numerous feats of the Chinese peacekeeping force: Chinese peacekeepers have accumulated new, repair, over 8000 km of roads, bridges and more than 200; discharge of the mines and various unexploded ordnance 8700; transported over 430,000 tons of materials, the transport of the total mileage of more than 700 million km; admissions to treatment more than 60 000 patients.

Xutie Bing visited more than 20 African countries, have come across a number of Chinese peacekeepers. He told the News of the World, a lot of African peacekeeping force in China have a natural sense of intimacy, to the Chinese people went to do a lot of practical things to improve people’s livelihood, such as roads and bridges, building a house to build a house, through the power water, and so on. Secondly, Britain, France and other Western countries, China in Africa Western countries, the past history of colonial expansion, the African people, its have a very complex state of mind. It is also too much of Western countries are reluctant to send troops to peacekeeping is an important reason. Not only historical burden, The Xu Tiebing said,

But even then strong team, it is difficult to resist the unpredictable security risk. In recent years, with the increase in UN peacekeeping operations, peacekeeping operations lethality. In addition to natural disasters, disease and accidents, the three main According to reports, the Chinese peacekeepers arrived in the mission area, generally will be advised of the need to sign the In

Peacekeeping mission

Prudent to send troops considerations behind

In fact, China 20 multi-year has not sent combat troops to peacekeeping, after careful consideration of the results. For the participating countries of the international peacekeeping operations, the first face a problem of licensing issues. The past 20 years, the Chinese involvement in Africa, UN peacekeeping operations, that is, people often hear the

However, the United Nations The African Union has also set up a peacekeeping force, and constitute a mixed-dimensional mode with the China has also participated in the hybrid peacekeeping system. This system includes the dual mandate of the UN and the AU, the former is a global organization, the latter organization for the region. In fact, due to the differences of the African Union in the north and south Sudan, mixing authorized a compromise, because it itself has a certain vulnerability, once there is a conflict when the United Nations and the African Union, the countries involved in peacekeeping and will be very some loss.

The other hand, China has long pursued the principle of Although China has a 20-year history of peacekeeping, conflict composition in some areas it is not clear, for what is just, unjust, also need careful consideration. Also, if the combat troops involved, and will involve many complex issues, such as how to deal with the local government, how local people and armed forces to communicate, if you are not familiar with the conflict composition, combat mission will face a big test.

Whether China will send and when to send combat troops, according to Chinese in overseas peacekeeping missions the degree of risk and the development of the situation to make the final decision the as Meng Xiangqing said. Xutie Bing also believes that China is no urgency to consider this issue, first and foremost to participate in the international system, such as international judicial system, regulatory system, insurance system, to enhance the safety and security of Chinese overseas institutional. / /

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Colvin is a senior war correspondent of The Sunday Times

Friday, February 24th, 2012

China news agency, London, February 22 (Reporter Wei Qun) – British Day in Congress , British Prime Minister Cameron Colvin were killed , condolences , saying it was run the risk of being Syrian reporters covering a disappointing tragedy to remind .
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Colvin is a senior war correspondent of The Sunday Times , Ozzie Lectra by rebel activity reported in Libya this month has just won the World Press Photo prize . The French government announced the news of the two unfortunate victims . Reuters reported that Colvin and Ozzie Lectra residence in the city of Homs , Syria was shelling two rocket shot dead while trying to escape .

the British Foreign Secretary Haig said this sad news , he was shocked and deeply sad , and two reporters to express our sincere condolences to the families .

According to BBC reports , their lives in dangerous situations . Colvin in an interview with the Sri Lanka civil war , had lost one eye , but this did not prevent her return to the more dangerous areas .

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the United States

Thursday, February 23rd, 2012

MOSCOW , February 21 ( Jacky Lau) Russian Army Commander Alexander – 21 Persian Kafelnikov in Moscow said the Russian military to complete the formation of the first branch of the motorized infantry brigade of the Arctic in 2015 .
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Persian Kafelnikov told the media that the formation of the force of the Russian military in progress , is expected to 2015 related to modern weapons and equipment will be fully in place . He said that the weapons and equipment , including multi-purpose armored personnel carriers , will improve the mobility and combat capability of the Arctic forces .

Russian Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov , in July last year , proposed the idea of the establishment of two special operations brigade in the Arctic , these two units may be stationed in Murmansk , Arkhangelsk . Russia to form a special trip to refer to a similar experience of Finland, Norway and Sweden .

With the global climate warming , Russia, the United States , Canada and other circumpolar Arctic countries have to strengthen its military presence in the Arctic , in order to compete for the rich resources there . Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin has said Russia is willing to dialogue with the Arctic neighbors , but will firmly defend its interests .

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Eurocopter and Bell’s four major helicopter manufacturers Focus on Asia. From India to South Korea

Wednesday, February 22nd, 2012

Reference News February 21, Boeing, Sikorsky, Eurocopter and Bell’s four major helicopter manufacturers Focus on Asia. From India to South Korea, the 1000 helicopter order will enable Asia to become the fastest growing military helicopter market in 2015.
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According to the Bloomberg News Web site reports by the world’s fastest growing regional economic support, military spending in Asia increased by 14% last year. Defense analyst the Shike Craig Caffrey said, with the emerging powers seek ways to expand the scope of military influence, countries compete to replace the aging Western and Soviet-made and made the old helicopter, the helicopter market is growing rapidly. The world’s largest rotor aircraft manufacturer Eurocopter Asia-Pacific region, executive vice president, Nobel Prize in · Dike Luo said in an interview that the tender in six countries in the next three years will generate $ 10 billion worth of contracts. Military helicopter number one manufacturer, a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation, Sikorsky’s regional vice president Christopher Nili, said: the tender, the company in the tender to sell its Caffery said: .

In this regard, the London-based vision benefit company, although the United States in the next 10 years will continue to be the largest military helicopter market, its share from 50% decreased to 38% last year’s withdrawal from Iraq, and planned from Afghanistan in 2014 withdrawal is likely to issue reduced demand signal. The company said in a report released on February 6, South Korea, from ninth in the world jumped to second, to replace the UK, India will move up to third, China with its market driven by attack helicopters doubled rose from thirteenth to seventh.

Reported that, in Singapore last week, an increase in competition. The last major air show in the beginning of a series of contracts of 197 light helicopters to India order worth about $ 1.5 billion before the announcement of major manufacturers to sell their products. In the competition to replace the old south aircraft manufacturing company manufacturing Aloutte helicopters, Eurocopter to sell the AS550-C3 . The end result will be announced in March or April.

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the co-pilot of the flight panic

Monday, February 20th, 2012

The international online Zhuangao : landed safely at Prague Airport .
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The flight captain dies in an accident , fire and emergency rescue teams rushed to the Prague airport , ready to respond to emergency situations . However , the co-pilot of the flight panic , driving this aircraft ATR -42 aircraft to safe landing .

Airport spokesman said the 46 passengers on the safe and sound . It is reported that the flight captain , aged 55, cause of death is currently unknown

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Iranian media have commented that the domestic nuclear fuel rods

Friday, February 17th, 2012

According to Iranian media reported on the 15th day of the Iranian experts will be the first domestic nuclear fuel rods loaded to the Tehran research reactor, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad – Ahmadinejad attended the loading ceremony; In addition, Iran has produced a new generation used to purify domestic centrifuges to enrich uranium, uranium enrichment facilities at Natanz and on the same day to enable this new type of centrifuge. The analysts believe that a new round of nuclear capability in Iran overwhelmed declared political significance than practical significance.
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According to Iran’s Press TV reported on the 15th, the Iranian experts was the day the first batch of domestic nuclear fuel rods loaded to the Tehran research reactor. Television pictures showed the Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad – Ahmadinejad in Iran, surrounded by officials and scientists, to observe the process of nuclear fuel rods loaded.

Located in north Tehran’s nuclear reactor was built in 1967, the assembly of the 5-megawatt reaction cell, is responsible for providing fuel originally from Argentina. However, the A side in recent years has stopped the supply.

News television reported that the Tehran reactor designed to produce radiopharmaceuticals, and provide treatment for cancer patients. Reported that, despite the West and the United Nations sanctions, but Iran has mastered the nuclear fuel cycle technology.

Iranian students news agency quoted the same day as saying that Iran’s Supreme National Security Council Deputy Secretary of nuclear talks Deputy Representative Bagheri, this approval of the fuel rods developed by Iranian scientists. He said, because Western countries are reluctant to provide Iran with help, Iran began to produce a purity of 20% enriched uranium to produce nuclear fuel rods.

Iranian media have commented that the domestic nuclear fuel rods, loaded to the Tehran reactor means that Iran’s nuclear program a big step forward.

Enabled fourth-generation domestic centrifuge

Iran had produced a new generation of domestic used to purify uranium enrichment centrifuges, and on the same day to enable this new type of centrifuge uranium enrichment facility in Natanz, Iran’s Atomic Energy Organization Xiebaxi Da Wani, announced on the 15th.

Iran’s Press TV reports, the fourth generation of centrifuges Iran has independently developed the use of carbon fiber, purification, enriched uranium faster, less waste, accounting for a smaller space at supersonic rotation. Abbasi Da Wani said, enabled the new centrifuge will accelerate Iran’s uranium enrichment activities, which is a strong response to the West

Ahmadinejad – Ahmadinejad on the 15th to attend the opening ceremony of Iran’s new generation of centrifuges Iran has installed 3000 domestic centrifuges at the Natanz uranium enrichment plant new, coupled with previously running 6,000 centrifuges centrifuges number increased to 9000 units. In addition, Iran will build four nuclear reactors in the country for the testing of nuclear fuel and production of radiopharmaceuticals.

The Iranian government also announced on the 15th, Iran will carry out the uranium mine development activities, will start production next year of new uranium Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in December 2010 has said that Iran has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of nuclear industry raw uranium

However, Iran’s domestic media did not mention the same day in Qom province, Sherlock and more uranium enrichment facilities. A number of media previously predicted Ahmadinejad – Ahmadinejad will personally announce Sherlock the multicore facilities officially put into operation.

The Sherlock multicore facility is located 160 km south of Tehran, near the Shiite holy city of Qom, Iran built a second uranium enrichment facility, allegedly capable of producing concentrations of 3.5%, 4% and 20% enriched uranium. The New York Times reported that Sherlock the multicore facilities to a concentration of 4% enriched uranium purification, so that concentrations of 20%, more easy to produce an atomic bomb. Sherlock the multicore facilities officially put into operation, will further increase in Western countries suspect that the purpose of Iran’s nuclear program.

Resumption of nuclear talks reply EU

According to Iran

Reported that the Iraqi side welcomed the six countries prepared to return to nuclear talks, and is ready to resume negotiations with six countries to prepare the next round of talks success depends on the six-nation initiative on Iran, Jalili said in the letter make a constructive response.

Ashton sent a letter to Iran last October, the proposal as long as Iraq is no prerequisite for the six countries and Iran can be in the Since then, Iran has repeatedly expressed its willingness to restore the stagnation of the year the nuclear negotiations with the six countries, but Iraq has not been formal reply to Ashton.

The latest round of nuclear talks between Iran and the United States, Britain, France, Russia, China and Germany, the six countries on January 22 last year in Istanbul, Turkey. Due to fundamental differences between the two sides in the uranium enrichment and other issues, the talks did not achieve substantial results.

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Political significance than practical

The analysts believe that a new round of nuclear capability in Iran overwhelmed declared political significance than practical significance. Others questioned the credibility of the progress of Iran’s nuclear program.

Reuters Iran released the news of the progress of the nuclear program, the purpose is to show Western countries, Iraq trade embargo failed to stop Iran’s progress in the development of nuclear energy, to increase Iran a bargaining chip in international negotiations.

Analyst Mark Fitzpatrick of the London Institute of International Strategic Iraq last month, just made into fuel rods, the use of homemade fuel rods in the Tehran reactor, fear can not guarantee the security operation. (Production of fuel rods) is not difficult, but the fuel rods must be put into use after a long safety testing. If Iran really untested fuel rods, I would suggest that the nuclear facilities around the people moved to other places, which not safe.

Sweden Stockholm International Peace Research Institute analyst Shannon Kyle

■ rapid assessment

Parties in urgent need of less confrontation increase mutual trust

In Western countries, doubts about Iran’s nuclear program, Iran’s move to declare the nuclear field, In the current circumstances, the parties in urgent need to reduce confrontation, enhance mutual trust, and resolve to create a good atmosphere for the peace of the Iranian nuclear issue.

Iran and Western countries around the contradictions generated by the nuclear issue for many years, and continues to heat up. Currently, the West gradually stepping up the pace of sanctions against Iraq, have been pushing the ban on the International Bank of Iran and even Iraq oil embargo. Threat of force against Iran’s statements one after another, and even rumors that Israel’s

Iran against each other, held military exercises in bursts, and also announced a Make an announcement on the 15th, Ahmadinejad – Ahmadinejad on the 11th ahead of rally, causing the widespread concern of public opinion.

The West, Iran has no concessions on the nuclear issue, because of the sanctions efforts were not enough, waving the sanctions stick afterburner beat. Party in Iran, want to frighten the West with a tough attitude. In this game, increasing the stakes will only make the two sides of the

On the one hand, while Iran insists that he is entitled to the peaceful use of nuclear technology, but it has not been able to dispel the doubts of Western countries, its nuclear technology for military purposes. International Atomic Energy Agency has also believe that Iran’s nuclear program, there are still outstanding issues.

The other hand, in Iran, the Western countries not only on the nuclear issue clenched tightly Iran, and has spared no effort in terms of strategy to contain Iran, to support the Iranian opposition. Looking back on history, and was clearly affixed to the development of weapons of mass destruction label Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq after the war proved to be a fundamental non-nuclear; abandon its nuclear program in the pre-war years of Libya Muammar Gaddafi regime, ultimately downfall ended, which is undoubtedly more to make Iran questioned the true intentions of the West on the Iranian nuclear issue.

At present, there have been some positive developments on the Iranian nuclear issue. Iran recently announced that the stagnant for a long time in the near future to restart nuclear talks; IAEA experts next week again in Tehran with Iranian officials held talks. The growing complexity in the current situation is grim, Iran to show the active cooperation of the signal on the occasion, the parties concerned need to reduce confrontation, take concrete actions to enhance mutual trust, strengthen dialogue and cooperation for the peaceful settlement of the Iranian nuclear issue and create a positive international environment.

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Russian Chief of General Staff: the West this summer, or to make a decision

Makarov, Russian armed forces Chief of Staff, said on the 14th Western countries or in the summer to make the

Russian news agency quoted military officials as saying:

Makarov, the so-called According to him, Russia, pay close attention to the situation in the Middle East and North Africa, including Iran and Syria.

U.S. and Israeli officials have recently issued repeated warnings, and lead to military strikes against Iran’s guess. Russia opposes military action against Iran, and stressed that the radical language of the relevant countries will only make the situation from further deteriorating.

Russia earlier in the UN Security Council vote in favor of four sanctions against Iran resolution, but that excessive pressure would be counterproductive.

Iran’s Oil Ministry: off for six countries reported

Iran’s Oil Ministry denied media reports that Iran’s decision to stop oil exports in the six EU countries reported on the 15th.

A spokesman of the Iranian Oil Ministry, told the media:

Iran’s Press TV reported that, as to impose sanctions on EU exports to Iran’s oil and the central bank to respond to Iran’s decision to stop oil exports to France, Italy, Netherlands, Greece, Portugal and Spain in six EU countries.

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CATIC stand usher in the senior government officials of countries in Europe

Wednesday, February 15th, 2012

February 14 , 2012 Singapore Airshow in a six-day opening of the Changi East Exhibition Hall , more than 900 exhibitors from over 50 countries around the world . Air in the aircraft industry’s international , CATIC jointly organized a powerful lineup of wonderful debut, received wide attention at the show site .
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Airshow the AVIC International , CATIC , jointly organized by the booth of 210 square meters . This exhibition of International Air MA600, H425, Aircar, SR20, LE500 model aircraft and continental aero-engine model , comprehensive display of a series of civil aircraft in the aircraft industry products ; CATIC display L – 15 advanced trainer Z- 9W helicopters, JF – 17 multi-role fighter , the Y – 12F general aviation aircraft , MA600 regional aircraft , unmanned aerial vehicles , SD -10A air to air missiles , the LS -6 -guided glide bomb , the PL- 5E II air-to-air missile model .

The morning of February 14 , Air International , CATIC stand usher in the senior government officials of countries in Europe , Asia, Africa and an important customer visit, and in-depth discussion in the field . In the inspection , Zhang Xinguo , deputy general manager of China Aviation Industry Airlines International , CATIC booth pointed out that in the aircraft industry attaches great importance to international aviation exhibitions, and focus on the promotion of its enterprises to actively expand international exchanges and cooperation , speed up the integration into the world aviation industrial chain.

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the maximum range of 245 km

Monday, February 13th, 2012

Boris – Orb Nuosuo Fu , senior management staff of the Russian arms manufacturer of tactical missile company disclosed on January 31 , is expected to be completed within two years developed specifically for the Russian T -50 stealth fighter designed tactical missile system . O’Brien Nuosuo Fu told the Russian news agency reporters , Kh- 35UE , the Kh – 38ME , the Kh – 58UShKE and RVV – MD4, different types of missiles are expected to be completed within the next two years to develop , the Kh- 31PD missiles have begun to test and to achieve bulk production.
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In accordance with the company’s statement of tactical missiles , the Kh- 35UE anti – ship tactical missile furthest flying distance of 260 km ; the Kh- 58UShKE missile capable of destroying the pulse radar , the maximum range of 245 km ; RVV -MD – air-to-air short-range missiles to combat a distance of 40 km ; Kh – 31PD supersonic anti-radar missile furthest flying distance of 250 km .

O’Brien Nuosuo Fu T -50 fighter is expected to be delivered in 2014 the Russian Air Force , then, the various models of missiles will be in place .

Developed by Russia’s Sukhoi T -50 stealth fighter , the maximum flight speed of 2100 km , fly continuously for up to 5500 km , is a fifth-generation fighter , located in the Russia says this aircraft can be shoulder to shoulder U.S. F -22 type

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army weapons and sophisticated militants . Syrian Foreign Minister said earlier

Thursday, February 9th, 2012

BEIJING , Feb. 1 , according to Itar-Tass reported on January 31 , Russian Tactical Missile Weapons Corporation O’Brien Nuosuo Fu said the company has delivered to Syria under the contract the new air missile air – ground X – 31A and X – 31P .
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O’Brien Nuosuo Fu said :

Russian Tactical Missile Group was established in January 2002 , is one of the main design of the Russian missile weapons . The Group is the fifth generation fighter T-50 developed a new series of missiles .

The anti-government protests erupted in Syria has been going on for October . According to United Nations data , the country’s more than 5,000 people killed in the conflict . Syrian authorities said more than 2,000 soldiers and police officers were shot and killed in conflict with the armed opposition , army weapons and sophisticated militants . Syrian Foreign Minister said earlier , the military and police deaths increased significantly since the last month .

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000 troops

Thursday, February 2nd, 2012

August 1945 in the Far East campaign is the final battle of World War II, the Soviet Union only a war on Japan; the war makes this the ultimate anti-fascist alliance is intact – although the alliance is due to victory fast disintegration. Battle of the implementation of the Songhua River and the Battle of South Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands campaign, the implementation of the Pacific Fleet Battle Chongjin. Campaign operation range of the Far East and Northeast China Zhang North Korean northeast coast of South Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands.

Far East campaign was launched in August 9th 1945, exactly between between the two atomic bomb. August 15 Japan announced its surrender, the Soviet Far East military campaign is defined by 9 August to 2 September, not the end of World War II’s final battle in Japan’s surrender, but extends to its allies signed the Japanese surrender on. Number of battle in World War II, the Far East campaign itself is unique, for the study of Chinese scholars confined to the Far East campaign political position, too often the evaluation. Stalin once said Only after the Sino-Soviet hostility to the People’s Daily, Dictionary of World War II However, widespread campaign on some of the classic discourse of the Far East is not true.

First, the Far East campaign, when most of the Japanese Kwantung Army New forces, not the Japanese Army’s elite corps.

Soviet monograph on the Battle of the Far East, infantry brigades, two tank brigades and some independent wing, the total strength of more than 120 million people, Kwantung Army, The error is

Campaign launched in the Far East, in northeast China within the scope of the first 3,5 Kwantung Army First Army, Third Army, the Army first 30,44, directly under the 4th Army, 22 Division comprises the eight independent mixed brigades and regiments 2 independent tank brigades a motorized brigade. May 1944 which expanded after the first 107,108,112,119 Division, January 16, 1945 the first 79,122,123,124,125,126,127,128 grouping Division, July 10 grouping on the first 134,135,136,138,139,148,149 division, and between June and July 1945 the Japanese China Expeditionary Army from the first 39,63,117 emergency Modulation Division, eight independent hybrid Brigade are then grouped in place. There are more than just the combat experience of the forces transferred within the three divisions. July 10, the majority of troops hastily grouped in Japan transferred from the division head, took his time but also later, independent mixed brigades and regiments only exempted four independent infantry brigade, which previously independent mixed brigades and regiments of the Japanese Army standard is prepared five independent infantry brigade or more. New forces actually compiled (including personnel, equipment) to a great extent to which certain issues, such as basic first 136,137,138 Division compiled by the soldiers in the village, the actual military minors; and if the end of July will be allowed formed three special guards, began to organize the implementation of the Kwantung Army in early August, during which the pre-attachment of the 4th Army’s 3rd Special Guard commander for the army against the village Mikio shelved.

In October 1942 upgraded to a total Kwantung Army, commanding the Kwantung Army to extend the war to the end of the Korean peninsula. Northeast coast of North Korea is due to a possible Soviet attack on the direction of North Korea by the defense at the end of May seventeenth delivery to the Kwantung Army, June 17, transferred from the customs of the 34th Army headquarters in Hamhung as the leading, jurisdiction 2 a Division 1 independent mixed brigades and regiments. The Far East campaign was launched, the Kwantung Army in accordance with plans to gradually shrink to the south is full, North Korea, South Korea stationed seventeenth Kwantung Army was ordered vested. Seventeenth Army headquarters in Seoul, 58 Jun jurisdiction Division 2 and 7 independent mixed brigades and regiments.

Chongjin North Korea actually occurred in male combat base, Rajin, Chongjin, as Jin (now Kim Chol) and other ports, not large-scale operations, with the Soviet war is Japanese Korean military district troops. 34th Army headquarters in Hamhung, troops stationed Hamhung, will be flat, Pyongyang, is still far away from the battlefield, Hamhung, Pyongyang, Wonsan, the sea state are occupied by the Soviet Army in airborne mode.

Although South Korea under the Kwantung Army, Seventeenth Army, but here for the U.S. combat area.

Soviet troops in southern Sakhalin operations targeted at the Japanese 88th Division, in the Kuril Islands Morijima accounted for the 91 Division, are directly under the Japanese Fifth Army (headquarters in Sapporo, Hokkaido), in the north with China Zhang Army to send troops stationed in North China MENG Jun 2 independent mixed brigades.

In short, the Far East campaign full operational range of the Japanese Army in fact only 26 divisions, 10 independent mixed brigades and regiments, two independent tank brigades and one motorized brigade. 2,5 Japanese Army Air Force stationed in northeastern China and North Korea, but very few can be used in combat aircraft.

The United States has the power of the Japanese troops in northeast China as a major obstacle to ending the Pacific War, the strength of the Kwantung Army inappropriate estimates described a long time. Japanese main section 11,25,57 Division in March 1945 with the Kwantung Army back from the Japanese mainland, since there are still information such as the West mistakenly called The Pacific War Encyclopedia Article 25,57 Division stationed in Manchuria until the end of the war.

Japan’s Kwantung Army’s elite corps once. 1940 was the Japanese Kwantung Army headquarters to determine the sequence of the 12 divisions plus the 16th Division (still home, after not running) as the formation of three divisions of 15 divisions. These 15 divisions are 24,25,28,29,71 division and the In 1944, the 15, 11 transferred to the South Division battle, then use the local garrison grouping six divisions, to the end of the year, there are 10 divisions, regardless of division or the number of combat power are the 1939 Division Since the lowest state. By early 1945 the remaining four

The United States has the power of the Japanese troops in northeast China as a major obstacle to ending the Pacific War, the strength of the Kwantung Army inappropriate estimates described a long time. Japanese main section 11,25,57 Division in March 1945 with the Kwantung Army back from the Japanese mainland, since there are still information such as the West mistakenly called The Pacific War Encyclopedia Article 25,57 Division stationed in Manchuria until the war ended.

April 5, 1945, Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov summoned Japanese Ambassador Sato warrior released a statement often misunderstood in some of the information in the Soviet Union announced the abolition of the Soviet-Japanese neutrality treaty. Actually this is the Soviet Union informed the Japanese, the Soviet Union a year later decided not to extend the treaty when the treaty expires, and the Soviet-Japanese neutrality treaty relationship has been maintained to the Far East when the campaign was launched (see my article Indeed, despite the and July was transferred from the off in three divisions, formed July 10, seven divisions.

Second, the rush of the Kwantung Army set up far from many millions.

1965 edition of operating unit with

Based on projections, the Kwantung Army in northeast China about 510,000 troops, about 60,000 in North Korea. Fifth Army in the South Kuril Islands, Sakhalin Island, about 9 million. Campaign operation in the Far East region of the Japanese navy only Zhenhai Guard House (Busan) under the base of Port Arthur in particular team, particularly base Wonsan team, according to the normal preparation of an estimated 20,000 troops, all the operations in the Far East campaign the Japanese army and navy geographical about 68 million, of which the Kwantung Army 570,000 (including 60,000 in North Korea).

If included in the Seventeenth Army in South Korea’s 23 million people (U.S. troops surrender to the war), the total end of the war when the Japanese Kwantung Army post about 80 million. As the scope of the Kwantung Army command had major changes, often data misnomer fighting the Soviets 80 to 100 million Kwantung Army.

There is puzzling that the Soviet record on statistical methods – and destroy the enemy confused with surrender.

August 15 Japan announced its surrender, the Soviet definition of the Far East campaign ended on September 2, Soviet statistics should record the date of this deadline, the main battlefield of northeast China should be as at 12:00 on August 20th, which is the Soviet Far East Japanese military commander Vasilevsky orders to stop fighting action deadline.

Already pointed out, the Far East campaign operation area of ​​about 68 million people in the Japanese army and navy, but not like Practice by study of the history of war, the battle should refer to the enemy in combat led to casualties, prisoners and the surrender were not included because of national defeat and surrender of those who made institution. For example, The Soviet Union is not running surrender persons) transfer to the Soviet servitude, that is another question.

The Far East campaign operation time is very short, the Soviet Union, Japan, data refer to examine the history of the war, in northeast China and the Soviet war of the Japanese real Mudanjiang region only the first 124,126,128,135 Division, 112th Division Hunchun region, rich Division Kam region 134, the first 107,119 Daxinganling region division, independent hybrid Aigun region 135 Brigade, 80th Hailar region independent mixed brigades, independent hybrid Zhang North 2nd Brigade, for a total of eight divisions Group three independent mixed brigades, army and navy of about one-third of Japan’s regional operations. If all of the Japanese fighting forces counted as losses can be estimated at 23 million, also according to the estimation method about 2:1 casualties known Japanese loss of 25 million. Generally speaking regions in the Far East campaign operation wiped out the Soviet Army (combat casualties and prisoners of war, surrender) of about 240,000 Japanese, 440,000 Japanese have formed into surrender to the Soviets, the Soviets not to wipe out the operations area of ​​680,000 Japanese , and certainly not wipe out the Japanese Kwantung Army.

In addition, to at 12:00 on August 20th (the deadline for the Japanese to stop fighting action), only the Soviet occupation of parts of the northeast, the so-called

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